The Lab Notes

The main theme of our research is to understand how gene regulation and genome organization tie in with each other. The Lab Notes are the latest headlines from the lab, featuring a collection of random thoughts and useful code snippets.

HIV Therapies – From “Hit Hard, Hit Early” to “Shock and Kill”

Since the outbreak of AIDS more than 30 years ago in the United States, HIV/AIDS is still one of the top ten causes of death worldwide [1]. One of the difficulties to cure HIV/AIDS is due to the lack of an effective HIV vaccine, although numerous laboratories are searching for it.

In 1995, David Ho first promoted a “hit hard, hit early” approach to eliminate HIV-1 infection in the early phase of the infection [2]. Yet, later on this approach was abandoned because of the high risk of side effects and the high cost of the treatment, this approach is still a milestone in the history of HIV/AIDS treatment. Nowadays, the standard approach for HIV/AIDS treatment is based on the standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) combining at least three antiretroviral (ARV) drugs to maximally suppress the HIV virus and stop the progression of HIV disease. Typical combinations include 2 nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) + 1 Protease Inhibitor (PI) or 2 NRTIs + 1 non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NNRTI) [3]. Clinical studies showed that ART is able to impressively decrease the mortality of AIDS patients.

It was gradually realized that one of the main reasons...